The central part of the western Anatolian coastal region—between the bays of Izmir and Baryglia and including the offshore islands of Samos and Chios—was once known as Ionia. The cities in the region were listed by Herodotus as Miletos, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Kolophon, Teos, Lebedos , Erythrai, Klazomenai, Phokia, and the islands of Samos and Chios. The main deity in most of the Ionian cities was Athena. Immigration to Ionia was spurred by Dorian incursions sweeping down the Greek peninsula. Proto-geometric pottery discovered during excavations supports the thesis that the first Hellenic settlement in Asia Minor began in the 10th century B.C.
Ionians colonized east – west coast of the Aegean seas. They were talented mariners, explored the shores, benefited from the maritime trade routes. Ionians were also famous for their talent in architectural and sculptural arts. Temple of Artemis in Ephesus and Temple of Apollo in Didyma were the master creations of Ionians. The cities of Ionia fell completely under Lydian rule (560 – 545